Neoplasms of the mediastinum is 0.5-3% of tumors of different localization. Teratodermoidal tumors constitute the second frequency - 15,7-23,1% of the tumor and mediastinal cystic processes.
Aim of research: To investigate the incidence of teratodermoidal neoplasms of mediastinum and development of optimal diagnostic tactics.
Materials and Methods: We observed 34 patients with teratodermoidal tumors of mediastinum aged 5 to 51 years, while in 7 (20.5%) patients were identified immature forms of the tumor. In 2/3 patients teratomas are located in the middle floor of the anterior mediastinum. According to our observations, teratodermoids found predominantly in young adults, women were 25 (73.5%), 9 males (26.5%). Thus, we observed 34 patients, 29 were under the age of 40 years (average age for women 23.4 and 16.8 for men). At the age of 45 and upper the tumors were found in only 4 patients. Thus, 27 patients with mature tumors 23 (84.3%) were women. Immature teratomas mostly observed in males, from 7 patients with immature tumor 5 (71.4%) were male. Thus, among 34 patients with teratodermoids, teratoma identified in 12 (35.3%) patients and in 22 (64.7%) patients were dermoid cysts.
Results: Analysis of clinical manifestations with the histological types showed that in complex diagnostic techniques necessarily including CT or MRI. If necessary, to address the differential diagnosis by using echocardiography, aortography and isotopic methods.
Conclusion: Comprehensive assessment of clinical and instrumental data in 80% of cases allowed correct diagnosis before surgery with confirmation of malignant and benign mediastinal teratodermoid formations and provide adequate treatment policy and rational choice of surgical approach.