Globally in 2016, 19% of previously treated tuberculosis (TB) cases and 4.1% of newly diagnosed cases were reported to be resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin (MDR-TB) or rifampicin alone (RR-TB) . In 2017, 8.5% of MDR-TB cases were caused by extensively drug-resistant-TB (XDR-TB) , defined as MDR-TB with additional resistance to a fluoroquinolone (FQ) and a second-line injectable drug (SLI, amikacin, kanamycin or capreomycin). TB drug resistance, especially XDR-TB, is associated with poorer treatment outcomes [1–3].
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Conflict of interest: Andrei Mariandyshev
Conflict of interest: Dr. Kazennyy has nothing to disclose.
Conflict of interest: Dr. Lounis has nothing to disclose.
Conflict of interest: Dr. Keim reports personal fees from Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, outside the submitted work.
Conflict of interest: Dr. Davidaviciene has nothing to disclose.
Conflict of interest: Dr. Vasilyeva has nothing to disclose.