Berita Kesehatan
The hidden history of hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Jumat, 21 Jan 2022 10:59:28

Hayley Barnes, Kirk Jones, Paul Blanc

European Respiratory Journal 2022 59: 2100252; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00252-2021


Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a relatively new construct, first reported in the early 20th century, despite major aetiological factors (farming, bird husbandry) having been part of human activities for millennia. Initial confirmed HP reports included exposure to farming and forestry (1932) and bird exposure (1965), much more recently than is often assumed. Later changes in occupational and living practices have led to HP associated with isocyanates, machine coolants, indoor mould, hot tubs and other exposures. Evolution of our pathological understanding of interstitial lung disease in general, wider computed tomography utilisation and advances in immunology and genomics have shaped our modern conceptualisation of HP. Examining historical accounts of HP and its causative factors not only considers when the first cases were recognised, but also explores why the disease emerged at specific times and places, and may provide further insights relevant to the mechanisms underlying HP and disease prevention.

Examining historical accounts of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and its causes not only considers when first cases were recognised, but also why it emerged at specific times and places, providing insights relevant to mechanisms and disease prevention


  • Author contributions: H. Barnes, K. Jones and P. Blanc conceived the article, contributed to the draft and approved the final manuscript. H. Barnes is the guarantor of the manuscript content.

  • Conflict of interest: H. Barnes has nothing to disclose.

  • Conflict of interest: K. Jones has nothing to disclose.

  • Conflict of interest: P. Blanc has nothing to disclose.

  • Support statement: H. Barnes acknowledges support from the National Health and Medical Research Council through a Postgraduate Scholarship. The funders had no role in the analysis or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Funding information for this article has been deposited with the Crossref Funder Registry.

  • Received January 27, 2021.
  • Accepted May 27, 2021.
  • Copyright ©The authors 2022. For reproduction rights and permissions contact